silk, cotton & wool

In authentic Iranian handwoven rugs, natural fibers are always used in the warp and weft of the rug. The first Iranian rugs were woven by the hands of nomads who traveled for many days on hard lands in harsh weather conditions to find better pastures for their livestock. Nomadic nomads wove rugs to keep themselves warm and to make their bed softer. Nomadic people did not have access to synthetic fibers or seek alternatives to natural fibers. Nomads were looking for materials that were both accessible and warm, and what better material than wool. In order to get wool, the nomads had to go out of their tents, pick and shear the sheep’s wool. The resulting resistant fibers were soft and easy to work with. Additionally, woolen yarn was easy to dye and weavers could create colorful rugs with an eye-catching range of different color patterns.

The original Persian and Oriental rug, whether it is woven by the hands of nomads or in the city, every single knot and row of it is tied by hand. Weavers tie the raw material (wool or silk) around the skein threads with different knotting techniques. Each rug is woven from a plan that, depending on the type of rug, can be a copy of an old and complex design or an improvised design that the rug weaver is inspired by his surroundings and lifestyle. Iranian handwoven rug is woven with different knots, devices and materials.

Oriental rug

Oriental rug can be briefly defined as a rug woven in Asia. Iran, China, India, Russia, Turkey, Pakistan, Tibet and Nepal are the biggest exporters of handwoven rugs. Persian rug is also a type of oriental rug that is very thick and dense and has more than 160 knots per square inch. Iranian hand-woven rug has a combination of cooked and eye-catching colors, unique design and special knots. The design, color, size and texture of Iranian hand-woven rugs are famous all over the world. Woven rugs are named according to the village, city or district where the rug is woven or sold. Nomadic rugs are also called by the name of its weaving tribe.

Iranian rug texture

Whether in the city or in the village, the Iranian hand-woven rug is woven with wool or silk with a special knotting technique, and the weaver ties the thread around the warp in a special way. Rugs are created with mesmerizing designs taken from old maps or inspired by the surroundings and way of life. After a row of knots is completed using the colored thread on the chart, the weaver presses the weft thread firmly between the newly completed row and the row she wants to start to hold the knots firmly in place. The weaving of a rug takes months or even years for the buyer to take home a unique work of art that is not only beautiful, but also practical and durable.

Iranian rug woven from natural fibers

From the beginning, nomadic rug weavers saw no reason to use artificial fibers for rug weaving. For this reason, old and authentic Iranian rugs were always woven with natural threads, wool, cotton and silk.

The base of the bed on which the rug is woven, the pile, and the thread used to weave the rug is called lint. In some rugs, the pile is long and thick, and in some rugs it is very short, so that the pattern of the rug becomes more visible and can be seen better. The rug is usually drawn with wool, cotton or silk, and sometimes a combination of the two types of thread. Cotton, wool and silk threads are used for rug background texture. Goat or camel hair is also used for background texture. Ff1The threads of the background texture are tied on the chela, consisting of warp and weft.


Tar refers to the vertical threads that are stretched from the top to the bottom of the rug. The presence of the warp is necessary to maintain the structure of the rug, because the knots are tied around the warp. The weft is also placed between the warp strands to hold the knots in place. The free end of the warp threads forms the root of the rug.


The use of the weft is to keep the knots steady. The weft thread is passed between the threads before and after each row of knots, and the rug weaver hits the weft with a firm comb so that the rows of knots are strengthened and the rug has a coherent texture.

Preparation of raw materials for rug weaving

Raw materials are the main elements of creating an exquisite rug. Its texture can last for years, and during these years, the thread is constantly stretched, thick and thin threads are beaten on the thread with heavy tools. And after finishing the rug work, it should be able to be walked on for years. The material must be of high quality and responsible for reliable procurement to ensure the stability of the rug with careful selection. The number of necessary materials is very small: cotton thread, wool thread, silk thread, raw materials for preparing natural colors… but it should be kept in mind that the amount of these materials is high and the cost is high. The preparation of these materials requires proper management, and in a country where economic inflation is very high, the uniqueness of the work of a rug master depends on his high inventory, which increases in value day by day. The rug master personally buys the required annual silk coils and the coils are dyed in his workshops. Compared to the past, the production of high-quality Iranian wool has decreased and its price has increased, customs regulations are constantly changing, etc., such issues make it difficult to procure its raw materials.